Bayesian statistics is fun. But it is also very hard. What is the probability that it is a hard subject, given that it is already fun? This may not be a very useful question to ask, but it gets to the heart of what Bayesian statistics (and inference) is all…

Done from scratch using less than 200 lines of code.

The other day I was working with some Python and functions, and it occurred to me that it would be a fun task to program a Connect-4 game from scratch using a few functions and a data structure known as…

A guide using simple Python code.

In my previous story (https://oscarnieves100.medium.com/simulating-correlated-random-variables-in-python-c3947f2dbb10) I discussed how to simulate correlated random numbers from a normal probability distribution. We focused on a normal distribution because it is well known, and standard methods of sampling exist.

But what if you wanted to create your own…

In my previous Medium story (https://oscarnieves100.medium.com/simulating-normal-random-numbers-in-python-18a2a21a1329) I discussed how to simulate normal random numbers with specific mean and variance properties by using something called the Box-Muller method. …

Using the Box-Muller method

In my previous Medium story: https://oscarnieves100.medium.com/how-to-simulate-random-numbers-dad35905ecdb I discussed how to simulate random numbers in Python by using a little mathematical method known as “the inverse sampling theorem”. …

A gentle introduction

Random numbers are used in a lot of applications. They are more predominantly used in areas like statistics, probability theory, data science, signal processing, statistical physics, machine learning, actuarial science, quantitative finance, and more. …

Students of science and engineering often only learn a bit of Excel in the context of doing simple data analysis, plotting and calculations involving single cells or scalar values (e.g. basic statistics). However, there are many ways in which Excel can be used for a lot of other calculations, including…

And understand it properly.

Statistics is a huge field of study. Most people only come across some statistics in school, and perhaps at university. Unless you have done a dedicated degree in data science, mathematics/statistics, quantitative finance or actuarial science; chances are you probably know very little. …

Gaussian integrals occur quite often in science, statistics, and probability theory. In fact, if you have ever come across the normal distribution in statistics — also known as the “Bell curve” — you probably know what a Gaussian function is, or at least what it looks like.

A Gaussian integral…

And how far to go with it.

Physics is a difficult thing to study. Not just because it requires a lot of mathematics, but also because it requires a lot of patience, dedication and time. Most people only learn physics in high school, and never touch on the subject again…